• 50 Most Popular Linux and Terminal Commands

    这篇文章的内容主要来源于Youtube视频The 50 Most Popular Linux & Terminal Commands - Full Course for Beginners

    另外,推荐这个网站 Linux Commands Handbook,里面有可以查询的Linux指令。


    • 更好地控制你的电脑
    • 运行速度很快
    • 可以自动化很多工作


    Linux本身是指一个Kernel, Kernel就是链接application和CPU / Memory的东西。


    wsl --install

    电脑上用管理员权限运行 PowerShell (不是 PowerShell(86) )


    为了更好地运行这些不同的Shell,可以安装一下Windows Terminal。(免费软件,在Microsoft Store里面可以安装)
    安装后,它可以允许我们自定义运行命令的背景等等。如果我们要运行一个Windows Powershell,可以点击加号,有不同的Shell可供选择



    whoami 'print the username
    man <command> 'open a manual for that command
    man whoami
    clear 'clear the terminal screen
    clear -x 'clear the terminal screen but remains the history
    pwd 'print working directory
    ls 'list a contents of the current folder
    ls <target folder path> 'list the contents for a target folder
    ls -l 'long format of files. (with file names etc)
    ls -a 'does not hide files starting with .
    cd 'change directory
    cd .. 'Go back to previous folder
    cd ~ 'Go to the folder with username
    help <command> 'the help file for any command

    Linux File Structure.

    All absolute path starts with /

    In the home folder, for all users using this machine, there will be a username for him/her

    mkdir #make a directory 创建一个文件夹
    mkdir a b #make two folders 创建 a 和 b 两个文件夹
    mkdir -p a/b #create parent directory when necessary 在文件夹 a下创建文件夹 b, 如果文件夹a不存在,先创建文件夹a,再创建子文件夹b
    touch #change file timestamps. if a file does not exist, it creates this file for us 改变文件的时间戳,如果文件不存在,创建这个文件 (这个命令常常用于创建文件)
    rmdir #remove a directory (only for empty ) 删除空文件夹
    rm #remove a file 删掉一个文件
    rm -rv <folder> #recursively delete all files in a folder 删除文件夹中的所有文件
    rm -V #print the output V参数可以输出删掉的内容
    open #open a file or folder (mac only) mac中打开文件或文件夹的指令
    open . #open the current directory 打开当前文件夹
    xdg-open #open command in linux 打开文件在Linux中的指令,会用默认软件打开
    mv #move files 移动文件
    cp #copy a file or folder 复制文件或文件夹
    cp -r #copy recursively for files in a folder 复制文件夹以及其中的所有文件
    head #output the first part of files 输出文件的前部分
    head <filename> -n <number> #n is for the number of lines to output 
    tail #output the last part of files 输出文件的后部分
    date #prints out the current date 输出当前日期 
    date > today.txt #output the current date to today.txt 输出当前日期到文件today.txt
    date >> today.txt #appending to a file instead of rewrite it 输出当前日期,并把当前日期写在today.txt文件后面,而不会删除原本内容

  • cat file #print all contents of a file 输出一个文件中的全部内容
    cat file1 file2 #print all contents of file1 and file2 输出文件1和文件2的全部内容
    cat -n file1 #-n is to print out the line numbers 加入参数n,可以同时输出内容和行数
    less <file># it shows the content stored inside a file, in a nice and interactive UI; cat的漂亮形式
    echo #it prints to the output the argument passed to it 这个命令等于print
    wc #print number of lines; number of words; number of bits 输出基本信息,(多少行,多少数字,多少bit)
    |  #give the output of the first argument to the second argument 这个符号可以把符号前面的Output传递给符号后面的命令作为Input
    ls -l | wc #word count for the ls -l 比如这个例子,ls -l 输出了当前文件夹下所有文件的名字,然后这个文本传递给了wc输出文本的基本信息
    sort #sort the document 给文件排序
    sort -n file #sort everything numerically 按照数字顺序给文件排序
    uniq #report or omit repeated lines
    uniq -d #only report duplicated values
    uniq -u #only report non-duplicated values
    uniq -C #count how many times each value is duplicated
    *.txt #match all documents ending with txt
    ? #match one character
    {a,b,c}.txt #output a.txt, b.txt, c.txt
    Day{1..365} #output Day1 Day2 Day3 .... Day 365
    diff #compare the contents of two files
    diff -v file1 file2 #compare two files line by line
    find <directory> <critria>
    find . -name #*.txt#
    find . -iname #*.Txt# #i for case incensitive
    find . -type d #only search for directory
    find . -type f #only search for files
    find . -name #E*# -or -name #*E# 
    find . -type f exec cat {} \ #exec cat to every file.  {} is placeholder for each found result
    grep #help search inside files
    grep <string to be found> <text to search>
    grep -r <string to be found> <directory> #recursively found a string in all texts in a folder. -ri can make it case incensitive
    du #find the size of directories or files
    df #show how many space left
    history #history of all commands run. Combined with grep, it is possible to obtain the command with certain character 
    ps #view the process running on the computer
    top #display top 10 process
    kill #shut a process
    kill <PID>
    kill -9 #brutal kill
    kill -15 #gental kill
    killall #perform multiple kills
    jobs #print out commands 
    fg <job number> #run some command on the foreground
    bg <job number> #run some command on the background
    <command> & #run the command on the backgound
    jobs #see those commands
    gzip <file name>#compress a file
    gzip -k <file name> #compress a file while keeping the original file
    gzip -d <file name>#decompress a file
    gunzip <file name>#decompress a file
    tar #used to create an archive, grouping multiple files in a single file
    tar -cf archive.tar file1 file2 #the c option standas for create, the f option is used to write to file the archive
    tar -xf #extract to current folder 
    tar -czf archive.tar.gz file1 file2 #creating a tar achive and then running gzip on it
    nano #a friendly editor
    alias <new command name> = '<old command>'# Give some alias to a long command
    # difference of "" and '', "" allows variable in a string
    echo "home directory \$PWD" # 这里\$PWD被当作成了变量或参数
    echo 'home directory \$PWD' # 这里\$PWD没有被当作成变量或参数
    xargs # turn the output of first argument to the input of second arguement'
    find x -size +1M | xargs ls -lh
    ln # it is used to create links. Links are effectively a pointer to another file
    # Two types of links: hard links and soft links
    ln <file1> <file2> # create hard link to file1 
    ln -s <file1> <file2># create soft link
    # soft link will be removed when original file is removed. But hard link will not be removed

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